Many educators have been trained to believe that the basics of reading are decoding and fluency and comprehension, but, as BrainWare Learning’s president, Betsy Hill, writes in an article recently published by Ed Circuit, those skills, while necessary to be a good reader, are not truly the most basic. The mental processes that our brains use to decode (and read fluently and comprehend) are the true basics of reading. Reading involves the simultaneous, coordinated use of multiple mental processes, including attention skills, working memory, visualization, and planning. The article provides specific examples of vital cognitive skills required for reading and explains how they operate. Hill also notes the growing support for this view of reading, as supported by the report from Digital Promise, Supporting the Research-Based Personalization of Reading Success. This article is the second in a series on cognitive skills and education developed exclusively for EdCircuit.